Next Generation Science Standards Aligned with Historical Entries
Next Generation Science Standards: 
Links to Historical Entries 

HSPS13—Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. 

HSPS18—Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the process of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. 
Niels Bohr 
HSPS21—Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationships among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. 

HSPS22—Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.. 

HSPS24—Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. 
Michael Faraday 
HSPS25—Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce and electric current. 
Michael Faraday 
HSPS26—Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecularlevel stricture is important in the functioning of designed materials. 

HSPS31—Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. 
Rudolf Clausius 
HSPS32—Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy stored fields. 
Rudolf Clausius 
HSPS33—Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. 
Rudolf Clausius 
HSPS35—Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interactions. 
Robert Hooke 
HSPS41—Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. 
Niels Bohr 
HSPS43—Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. 

HSPS44—Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter. 
Niels Bohr 
HSPS45—Communicatio technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.  Michael Faraday 
HSESS14—Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. 